Tuesday, December 15, 2009

Custom Plugin Instruments

A quick tip to anyone using OpenGL and a plugin to make custom instruments. (The most common case of this I can imagine is customized glass displays, where it may not be practical to use 10,000 generic instruments, and the display being emulated is basically a computer display.)

OpenGL is not pixel exact, its per-primitive anti-aliasing (e.g. draw me a smooth line) is inconsistent and weird, and you probably won't have full-screen anti-aliasing on your panel. (FSAA is out of your control, as X-Plane sets up the panel render.

For this reason, I recommend "texture anti-aliasing". Basically in this technique you draw everything as rectangles, - for your lines, you use textures that have alpha at the edge. The linear intepollation of the texture forms the anti-aliased edge.*

For a detailed examination of the problem, I recommend this page. (arekkusu is a freaking genius and his treatment of the problem is very thorough!) I have also tried to explain how the hell OpenGL decides what it's going to draw here. There are a few important cases where you can be pretty sure about what OpenGL will draw, and a lot of cases where you're playing pixel roulette.

The "texture" technique also has the advantage that it leads nicely into the use of texture artwork. For example, if you need a line with an arrow-head, well, you're already drawing a line as a textured rectangle with pixels in the center and alpha on the sides. Just ask your artist to draw an arrow-head in photoshop!

* Texture FSAA actually produces better results than FSAA (with non-AA pixels). The reason is that FSAA produces a finite number of intermediate alpha levels. The number of finite levels depends on the FSAA scheme, but it is always discrete levels, hence 16x FSAA looking better than 2x. By comparison, when we use textures, we get a smooth linear blend between our transparent and opaque pixels, giving us the smoothest possible anti-aliasing.

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