Friday, April 02, 2010

Mirrored Normal Maps

Normal maps in X-Plane 940 have a funny property: if you flip the normal map horizontally or vertically, the bumps change direction. Things that "stuck out" now "stick in" and vice versa. (If you flip the normal map horizontally and vertically, the two cancel out and the normal map is not reversed.)

You can understand this by thinking of your normal map as a physical piece of metal with bumps punched in it. Flipping it horizontally really means rotating it horizontally to see the other side - now you see the back side of the bumps. Same with the vertical flip. Flip both and you have flipped it twice and it's front-side forward again.

In a move that is either just in the nick of time or dangerously reckless, I have tweaked the normal map shader for 950 RC1 (coming out "real soon") to detect and "fix" a flipped normal. In 950 rc1 the bumps in your normal map will always point in the same direction as the normal of your mesh, even if your UV map is flipped horizontally or vertically.

What does this mean to you, the modeler? It means that you can now mirror your normal map from the left to the right side of the airplane and the normal map will still have the bumps "sticking out" like you want.

I crammed this into 950 RC 1 because it looks like it's a useful change that will restore flexibility to authors making highly detailed airplanes. Mirroring a symmetric airplane (which results in a horizontally mirrored normal map) is a pretty common thing to do, and if the text is applied as decals, this can be a big win in texture space savings.

I figured best to get the tweak in here now so people could take advantage of it. Plus, what's an RC1 without an RC2?

1 comment:

Jack said...

This works wonders, no i no longer have to go in an make photoshop give me two or sometimes three different normal maps and peace them back together. i make one and it works.

thanks so much man!